What to Know About Well Water in Your New Home

Part 1 of 2 in the series, From Source to Tap: The Journey of Water in Your New Home

When you begin the journey to find your perfect home, one critical aspect often lurks beneath the surface, quite literally is the water supply. For prospective homeowners looking at properties in rural and some suburban areas, understanding the nuances of well water is not just a drop in the bucket—it’s a pivotal factor in the decision-making process. Unlike the more familiar municipal systems, well water comes directly from the ground, offering a private water source that can carry both charm and challenge.

gray two story home with grassy green front yard

In the United States, approximately 13% of the population has well water as the primary means of accessing drinking water for many households. Homes with well water are typically located outside of urban sprawl. This form of water supply taps into underground aquifers to deliver water straight to your tap, bypassing the treatment plants and infrastructure that define public water systems. While this can mean fresher water with fewer additives, it also introduces a host of variables from quality to quantity, all of which require careful consideration.

As you consider a property serviced by well water, you are not just buying a home; you are stepping into the role of “water manager.” This article will summarize everything you need to know about well water before committing to your home purchase. Understanding the well’s condition, the water’s quality and the responsibilities that come with maintenance will ensure that your dream home comes with a water source you can trust that’s safe and reliably satisfying.

How Does Well Water Work?

Well water operates on a relatively straightforward principle: it provides a private source of water that is drawn up from the ground. Well water systems are particularly common in rural areas where municipal water is not available, but some homeowners in suburban or even urban areas may choose well water for taste preferences, environmental reasons, or a desire for independence from public utilities.

Each well water system is unique, and the quality of the water can vary significantly from one location to another, making understanding the specifics of the well and water quality vital for any homeowner relying on this resource.

Here’s an overview of how it typically works:

Accessing Groundwater

  • A well is dug, driven, or drilled into the ground to access water contained in aquifers, which are layers of permeable rock, sand, or gravel that hold water.
  • The depth of the well can vary greatly depending on the geographical location and the depth at which water is found.

Drawing Water to the Surface

  • Once the well reaches the aquifer, a pump is used to draw water up from the ground.
  • In modern wells, this is usually an electric pump, which can be located above ground (jet pump) or below water inside the well (submersible pump).

Storing Water

  • The water is often pumped into a pressure tank within the home or well system.
  • This tank regulates the water pressure in the home and ensures a consistent supply when taps are turned on.

Water Treatment

  • Unlike municipal water which is treated at a central facility before it reaches homes, well water may require individual households to treat their water to remove any contaminants or minerals.
  • Common treatments include filters to remove sediment, water softeners to remove minerals that cause hardness, and disinfection methods like ultraviolet light or chlorination to kill bacteria and other pathogens.

Regular Testing

  • Well owners are responsible for testing their water regularly to ensure it is safe for drinking. Tests typically check for bacteria, nitrates, pH levels, and other contaminants.
  • Depending on the location and the local land use, additional testing for specific contaminants like heavy metals or agricultural chemicals may be necessary.


  • Wells require regular maintenance to ensure the system remains clean and the water safe for consumption.
  • This includes periodic checks of the pump, the well cap (which should be airtight to prevent contamination), the pressure tank, and the water quality.

Is Well Water Cleaner Than Public Municipal Water?

The question of whether well water is cleaner than city water isn’t straightforward because “clean” can refer to different aspects of the water—its chemical composition, the presence of contaminants, or its taste and smell.

Ultimately, the “cleanliness” of well water versus city water depends on regular testing and maintenance for well water, and trust in municipal services for city water. Both sources can provide clean, safe water, but the methods to ensure and maintain that safety are different. It’s also worth noting that a well-maintained water system, whether a private well or a public utility, is key to ensuring the water’s cleanliness and safety.

Here are some factors to consider when comparing the cleanliness of well water and city water:

Treatment and Monitoring

Public water is treated at municipal treatment facilities to meet strict safety standards set by the government, such as the Safe Drinking Water Act in the United States. It is regularly tested for a variety of contaminants, and the results are typically available to the public.

Well water, on the other hand, is the responsibility of the homeowner. While it may not contain the chlorine found in city water, which some people are sensitive to in terms of taste and smell, the owner must regularly test and treat the well water to ensure it’s safe from contaminants like bacteria, nitrates, and heavy metals, which can seep into groundwater.

Natural Filtration

Groundwater, which supplies well water, naturally filters out some particulate matter as it seeps through soil and rock. However, this doesn’t guarantee the removal of all potential contaminants, especially those that are soluble.

Environmental Factors

The cleanliness of well water can be affected by local land use, such as agriculture or industry, which can contaminate groundwater with pesticides, nitrates, heavy metals, and other pollutants. City water sources can also be affected by environmental factors, but treatment plants are designed to address and remove a wide range of contaminants.

Presence of Minerals

Well water often contains higher levels of minerals, which can be both a health benefit and a nuisance. While some minerals are essential for health, others can cause problems like hard water, which requires additional filtration to manage.

Taste and Smell

Some people prefer the taste of well water because it can be fresher and free from chlorine and chloramines, which are used to disinfect city water. City water may sometimes have a slight taste or smell due to these disinfectants, but it’s a sign that the water has been treated to kill harmful microorganisms.

Learn More About Water Issues >>

Is Well Water Free?

Well water is not billed in the same way as municipal water, so there is no monthly fee for water usage. However, it is not entirely free. Homeowners with well water incur initial costs for drilling and installing the well, as well as ongoing costs for electricity to run the pump, maintenance, repairs, testing for contaminants, and potential water treatment systems. These expenses can add up over time, but they replace the regular utility bills that accompany municipal water services.

What are the daily life adjustments when living with well water?

Living with well water often involves a greater awareness of water usage and proactive maintenance. Daily life adjustments may require a more hands-on approach to water management compared to living with municipal water, but many find the independence and the fresh taste of well water to be worth the extra effort.

Here are some daily life adjustments you may encounter:

  • Water Conservation – Since well water relies on groundwater, during droughts or periods of low replenishment, you may need to be more mindful of water consumption to avoid depleting your supply.
  • Maintenance Routines – Regular checks and maintenance of the well’s pump, pressure tank, and filtration systems become part of your routine to ensure the system’s longevity and water quality.
  • Power Outages – Electric pumps mean that during a power outage, your home may be without water. As a result, it’s common to have an emergency water storage or a generator.
  • Water Quality Monitoring – You’ll need to test your water periodically for contaminants, as well as for pH and mineral content, to ensure its safety and palatability.
  • Taste and Odor Differences – Adjusting to the taste of well water, which can be affected by minerals and the lack of chlorination, may take time for those used to municipal water.
  • Handling Repairs – You’re responsible for addressing any issues with the well system, so learning the basics of troubleshooting common well problems is often necessary.
  • Water Pressure Awareness – The water pressure in homes with well water can be different from that in homes with municipal water, and it may require adjustments to the pressure tank settings.
  • Investment in Filtration – Depending on the water test results, you might need to invest in additional water treatment options like water softeners, sediment filters, or UV purification.

What Should I Consider Before Moving Into My Home?

Before moving into a home with well water, consider the condition and age of the well and its equipment, ensuring they meet current standards and function efficiently. The Carroll Water experts recommend a professional inspection of the system and testing the water for quality, checking for contaminants, pH balance, and hardness.

Evaluate the area’s water table and historical groundwater levels to gauge the well’s reliability, especially if the region is prone to droughts. Be mindful of potential maintenance and the cost of any necessary treatment systems, like softeners or filters. Familiarize yourself with the electricity usage for pumping water and consider installing a backup generator if power outages are common. Lastly, understand the legal aspects, such as water rights and any local regulations regarding well water use and maintenance.

Investing time in understanding the intricacies of your well water system today can lead to a future of healthy, enjoyable, and sustainable living in your new home. Contact us if you have any questions during your journey of evaluating the well and water in your new home.

Read Part 2 in the series, From Source to Tap: The Journey of Water in Your New Home, What to Know About the Water Treatment System in Your New Home >>

Brian Gaughan

Brian Gaughan

Brian Gaughan, CEO of Carroll Water, oversees all of the day-to-day operations and leads a dedicated team of professionals specializing in water filtration and treatment, well drilling, and geothermal services. Brian and the Carroll Water team of expert water professionals are licensed Master Well Drillers, Water Conditioner Installers, Wastewater Operators/Plant Operators, Class A Contractors, Maryland Home Improvement Contractors, and Pump Installers.

Brian joined Carroll Water in 2015 as the Sales Manager. Over the years, his expertise in sales and customer service, particularly in the residential and commercial sectors, has reinforced the company's stature in the mid-Atlantic region for providing expert services in water treatment and well-drilling.

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